Does anyone know? Are they essentially the same? Did the Solesmes Monks give their fellow Benedictines a heads-up edition 12 months before a more general one was issued? Does anyone know where I could obtain a edition of the Antiphonale Monasticum?
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Terminology[ edit ] Alternative terms for Antiphonary are Antiphonal or Antiphony. In current usage, Antiphonary refers more narrowly to books containing the chants for the Divine Office in distinction to the [ Gradual Graduale or more rarely antiphonarium Missarum , which contains the antiphons used for the Mass.
Other English equivalents for antiphonary are antiphonar still in reputable use and antiphoner considered obsolete by some English lexicographers, but still sometimes used in the early 20th century. The word Antiphonary had in the earlier Middle Ages sometimes a more general, sometimes a more restricted meaning.
In its present meaning it has also been variously and insufficiently defined as a "Collection of antiphons in the notation of Plain Chant", and as a liturgical book containing the antiphons "and other chants". In its present complete form it contains, in plain-chant notation, the music of all the sung portions of the Roman Breviary immediately placed with the texts, with the indications of the manner of singing such portions as have a common melody such as versicles and responses, the Psalms, the Lessons, the Chapters.
But the Lessons of Matins First Nocturn in the triduum of Holy Week, styled "Lamentations", have a melody proper to themselves, which is not therefore merely indicated but is placed immediately with the texts of the Lessons.
An old Antiphoner from the Church of St. Francis, Evora, Portugal In order to show as clearly as possible the exact position of the antiphonary amongst the liturgical books, it is proper to recall that the Roman Missal contains all the texts used at Mass; the Roman Breviary , all the texts used in the Divine Office or Canonical Hours.
While in the Missal, the introits , graduals , tracts , sequences , offertories, communions, as well as the texts of the Kyrie , Gloria , Credo , Sanctus , and Agnus Dei are both read by the celebrant and sung by the choir, their notation is not given, only the accentus or chants, of the celebrant and deacon have the music furnished such as the intonations of the Gloria, the Credo, the chants of the various Prefaces, the two forms of the Pater Noster , the various forms of the Ite, or Benedicamus, the Blessing of the Font, etc.
The omitted chants styled concentus , which are to be sung by the choir, are contained in a supplementary volume called the "Graduale" or "Liber Gradualis" anciently the "Gradale". In like manner, the Roman Breviary, practically entirely meant for singing in choro, contains no music; and the "Antiphonarium" performs for it a service similar to that of the "Liber Gradualis" for the Missal. Just as the "Liber Gradualis" and the "Antiphonarium" are, for the sake of convenience, separated from the Missal and Breviary respectively, so, for the same reason, still further subdivisions have been made of each.
The "Antiphonarium" has been issued in a compendious form "for the large number of churches in which the Canonical Hours of the Divine Office are sung only on Sundays and Festivals". This Antiphonarium Romanum compendiose redactum ex editionibus typicis etc. Another separate volume is the "Vesperal", which contains also the Office of Compline ; and of the "Vesperal" a further compendium has been issued, entitled "Epitome ex Vesperali Romano". Associated somewhat in scope with the "Antiphonarium" is the "Directorium Chorii", which has been described as furnishing the ground plan for the antiphonary, inasmuch as it gives or indicates all the music of the chants except the responsories after the Lessons , the tones of the psalms, the brief responsories, the " Venite Exultemus ", the " Te Deum ", Litanies etc.
The text of all the psalms, the full melody of the hymns, and the new feasts were added to the "official edition" of the "Directorium" in The word antiphonary does not therefore clearly describe the contents of the volume or volumes thus entitled, in which are found many chants other than the antiphon per se, such as hymns, responsories, versicles, and responses, psalms, the " Te Deum ," the " Venite Adoremus ," and so forth.
The expression "antiphonal chant" would, however, comprise all these different kinds of texts and chants, since they are so constructed as to be sung alternately by the two divisions of the liturgical choir; and in this sense the word Antiphonary would be sufficiently inclusive in its implication.
It may be said, then, that these two books receive the names "Antiphonarium" and "Graduale" from the technical name of the most important chants included in them.
Fundamentally all the chants, whether of the Mass or of the Divine Office, are sung antiphonally, and might, with etymological propriety, be comprised in the one general musical title of "Antiphonary. Katharina in St. The historiated initial depicts a Nativity scene. The Poissy Antiphonal, folio 30 Middle Ages. Early history[ edit ] The plainsong melodies found in the Roman antiphonary and the "Graduale" have received the general title of " Gregorian Chant ", in honour of pope Gregory the Great r.
The importance of the Gregorian Antiphonary is found in the enduring stamp it impressed on the Roman liturgy. Earlier popes had given, a medieval writer assures us, attention to the chants; and he specifies St. Damasus d. Leo d. Gelasius d. Symmachus d. John I d. It is true, also, that the chants used at Milan were styled, in honour of St. But it is not known whether any collection of the chants had been made before that of St.
Gregory, concerning which his ninth-century biographer, John the Deacon , wrote: Antiphonarium centonem … compilavit. The authentic antiphonary mentioned by the biographer has not as yet been found. What was its character? What is meant by cento "patchwork"?
In the century in which John the Deacon wrote his life of the Saint, a cento meant the literary feat of constructing a coherent poem out of scattered excerpts from an ancient author, in such wise, for example, as to make the verses of Virgil sing the mystery of the Epiphany. The work, then, of St.
Gregory was a musical cento, a compilation centonem … compilavit of pre-existing material into a coherent and well-ordered whole. This does not necessarily imply that the musical centonization of the melodies was the special and original work of the Saint, as the practice of constructing new melodies from separate portions of older ones had already been in vogue two or three centuries earlier than his day. But is it clear that the cento was one of melodies as well as of texts?
In answer it might indeed by said that in the earliest ages of the Church the chants must have been so very simple in form that they could easily be committed to memory; and that most of the subsequently developed antiphonal melodies could be reduced to a much smaller number of types, or typical melodies, and could thus also be memorized. And yet many say that it is scarcely credible that the developed melodies of St.
What made his antiphonary so very useful to chanters as John the Deacon esteemed it was probably his careful presentation of a revised text with a revised melody, written either in the characters used by the ancient authors as set down in Boethius or in neumatic notation. We know that St. Augustine , sent to England by St. Gregory, carried with him a copy of the precious antiphonary, and founded at Canterbury a flourishing school of singing.
That this book was the Gregorian antiphonary is clear from the testimony of Egbert, Bishop of York , who in his De Institutione Catholica speaks of the "Antiphonarium" and "Missale" which the "blessed Gregory … sent to us by our teacher, blessed Augustine".
Middle Ages[ edit ] It is impossible to trace here the progress of the Gregorian antiphonary throughout Europe, which resulted finally in the fact that the liturgy of Western Europe , with a very few exceptions, finds itself based fundamentally on the work of St.
Briefly, the next highly important step in the history of the antiphonary was its introduction into some dioceses of France where the liturgy had been Gallican , with ceremonies related to those of Milan and with chants developed by newer melodies.
From the year may be dated the change in favour of the Roman liturgy. Chrodegang , Bishop of Metz , on his return from an embassy to Rome, introduced the Roman liturgy into his diocese and founded the Chant School of Metz. Subsequently, under Charlemagne , French monks went to Rome to study the Gregorian tradition there, and some Roman teachers visited France.
The interesting story of Ekkehard , concerning two monks, Petrus and Romanus, sent from Rome to teach chant,  is not to be taken as historical. Gall trained the monks in the Roman style.
Besides Metz and St. Gall, other important schools of chant were founded at Rouen and Soissons. In the course of time new melodies were added, at first characterized by the simplicity of the older tradition, but gradually becoming more free in extended intervals.
With respect to German manuscripts, the earliest are found in a style of neumatic notation different from that of St. Gall, while the St. Gall manuscripts are derived not directly from the Italian but from the Irish-Anglo-Saxon. It is probable that before the 10th and 11th centuries at which period the St. Gall notation began to triumph in the German churches the Irish and English missionaries brought with them the notation of the English antiphonary. It would take too much space to record here the multiplication of antiphonaries and their gradual deterioration, both in text and in chant, from the Roman standard.
The school of Metz began the process early. Commissioned by Louis the Pious to compile a "Graduale" and antiphonary, the priest Amalarius of Metz found a copy of the Roman antiphonary in the monastery of Corbie , and placed in his own compilation an M when he followed the Metz antiphonary, R when he followed the Roman, and an I C asking Indulgence and Charity when he followed his own ideas.
His changes in the "Graduale" were few; in the antiphonary, many. Part of the revision which, together with Elisagarus , he made in the responsories as against the Roman method, were finally adopted in the Roman antiphonary.
In the 12th century, the commission established by St. Bernard to revise the antiphonaries of Citeaux criticized with undue severity the work of Amalarius and Elisagarus and withal produced a faulty antiphonary for the Cistercian Order.
The multiplication of antiphonaries, the differences in style of notation, the variations in melody and occasionally in text, need not be further described here. That the word antiphonarium is, or was, quite elastic in its application, is shown by the remark of Amalarius in his Liber de ordine Antiphonarii, written in the first half of the 9th century. I have followed our custom, and have placed together mixtim the responsories and the antiphons according to the order of the seasons in which our feasts are celebrated" P.
The word "cantatory" explains itself as a volume containing chants; it was also called "Graduale", because the chanter stood on a step gradus of the ambo or pulpit, while singing the response after the Epistle. Other ancient names for the antiphonary seem to have been Liber Officialis Office Book and "Capitulare" a term sometimes used for the book containing the Epistles and Gospels. Modern history[ edit ] Changes in the antiphonary were made in the Counter-Reformation , resulting from the reform of the Roman Breviary ordered by the Council of Trent and carried out under Pius V.
The term antiphonarium, printed as a title to many volumes of the early modern period, is made to cover a very varied selection from the complete antiphonary. Sometimes it means practically a "Vesperale" sometimes with Terce added; sometimes with various processional chants and blessings taken from the "Processionale" and "Rituale".
These volumes meet the local usages in certain dioceses with respect to Church services, and offer a practical manual for the worshipper, excluding portions of the Divine Office not sung in choir in some places and including those portions which are sung.
See also names of Antiphonaries, as Armagh, Antiphonary of Bangor etc. In the second half of the 19th century, there was a movement to restore medieval Gregorian music. Gall, of Hartker, of Montpellier, of the twelfth-century monastic antiphonary found in the library of the Chapter of Lucca, which in course of publication illustrated the Guidonian notation that everywhere replaced, save in the school of St.
This appeal to early tradition has resulted in Pius X taking away its official sanction from the Ratisbon edition. The Ratisbon "Graduale", founded on the Medicean which gave the chants as abbreviated and changed by Anerio and Suriano , and the "Antiphonarium" which was based on the Antiphonale of Venice, , with the responsories of Matins based on the Antwerp edition of , would be replaced by the chants as found in the older codices.
The first of these volumes to be issued, entitled: Tomus II. It comprised in one volume what in some editions had been distributed in several, such as the "Antiphonarium" in a very restricted sense , the "Psalterium", the "Hymnarium", the "Responsoriale".
The Office of Matins was divided into the other two volumes, one of which contained the invitatories, antiphons, hymns, etc. It is suggested by some that this Ratisbon edition has lost its authentic and official character by virtue of the Motu proprio Tra le sollecitudini 22 November , and the Decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites 8 January Pope Pius X rejected the Ratisbon edition and ordered the creation of a new Vatican edition, in which both the texts and the melodies were to be revised in order to bring them into conformity with the results of recent palaeographic studies in Gregorian chant.
The Ratisbon editions were replaced with the Vatican edition of The Antiphonale monasticum was produced by the Benedictines of Solesmes. In the Office was substantially revised and renamed the Liturgy of the Hours Liturgia Horarum and new books appeared: the Psalterium monasticum and the Liber hymnarius Editions[ edit ] Printed editions Venetiis apud Iuntas.
Antiphonarium Romanum. Egidio Forcellini. Giacomo Pergamini.
Antiphonale Monasticum, 1934 Solesmes Edition