Bovine Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale is an intracellular erythroparasite of cattle that produces severe hemolytic anemia and is of major economic importance. Endemic areas in the U. The disease is transmitted by several species of ticks and is called tick-borne fever. After infection, there is an incubation period of several weeks followed by a period during which parasitemia increases rapidly and is quickly followed by precipitous drop in hematocrit. The clinical syndrome is one of acute onset, severe anemia with icterus, fever, anorexia, dehydration and depression.
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Bovine Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale is an intracellular erythroparasite of cattle that produces severe hemolytic anemia and is of major economic importance. Endemic areas in the U. The disease is transmitted by several species of ticks and is called tick-borne fever.
After infection, there is an incubation period of several weeks followed by a period during which parasitemia increases rapidly and is quickly followed by precipitous drop in hematocrit. The clinical syndrome is one of acute onset, severe anemia with icterus, fever, anorexia, dehydration and depression. Unlike Babesia species, hemoglobinuria does not occur as the hemolysis is extravascular in the spleen and bone marrow. With acute infection, cattle can die or suffer abortion. If they survive, several days after the onset of signs, the number of parasites is very low and anemia is regenerative macrocytic and hypochromic with reticulocytosis.
A concurrent immune-mediated hemolytic anemia with spherocytes may also be present and results in removal of non-parasitized red cells. Diagnosis of anaplasmosis is confirmed by finding the parasite — it is recognized as small, round dark purple inclusions located at the periphery of red cells.
There are usually more than per cell. The organism must be differentiated from Howell-Jolly bodies. Effective vaccines have mitigated the economic impact of the disease. Cells: Neutrophils, eosinophils. Morulae are frequently seen in neutrophils, although can degrade rapidly after institution of antimicrobial therapy losing their characteristic grape-like features.
Clinical signs: Several syndromes Bloodwork: Thrombocytopenia characteristic , non-regenerative anemia, neutropenia usually no left shift or toxic change. Diagnosis: Morulae in neutrophils in blood. Serologic testing, PCR. The former infects granulocytes neutrophils and eosinophils whereas the latter infects platelets.
The organisms are transmitted by ticks, particularly Ixodes species, with rodents and deer serving as reservoir hosts in the northeastern United States, white-footed mice are the implicated main reservoir of not only Anaplasma but also Borrelia burgdorferi. Tetracyclines are the treatment of choice for all Anaplasma infections. Clinical signs: Fever, lethargy, anorexia are the most common clinical signs and typically occur after weeks of infection.
Polyarthritis can occur in some infected dogs, resulting in lameness, joint swelling and reluctance to move Carrade et al The mechanisms of these cytopenias is unclear, although the thrombocytopenia could be partly immune-mediated Carrade et al Studies have shown that the organism prolongs the circulating lifespan of neutrophils by delaying apoptosis Borjesson et al In horses, the most common laboratory finding is a mild thrombocytopenia followed by a mild non-regenerative anemia.
Some horses have a concurrent mild neutropenia, which is not usually accompanied by a left shift or toxic change in neutrophils. Some horses have normal laboratory findings.
We generally see infections in Fall and Spring, with an increasing frequency of diagnosis in the last few years associated with global warming and increased tick infestation in Upstate New York. The same is true of horses. Experimental studies have shown that PCR tests are positive about a week before and for several days after morulae are detected in blood in dogs Carrade et al Acute and convalescent paired testing can facilitate diagnosis of recent infection, particularly in dogs demonstrating characteristic clinical signs or laboratory features Carrade et al Serologic testing also does not reliably differentiate Anaplasma phagocytophilum from other bacterial infections, including Anaplasma platys.
Anaplasma platys Anaplasma platys Vector: Unknown. Cells: Platelets. After experimental infection, morulae appear in platelets within days, with maximal parasitemia 4 days later. The number of parasitized platelets decreases with each cycle, making the diagnosis more difficult over time Allison and Little, Clinical signs: Fever. Bloodwork: Thrombocytopenia cyclical — see above.
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