Today, the Ashtanga Hridayam continues to serve as a root source for Ayurvedic philosophy and protocol, providing clear guidelines in all aspects of health. As an Ayurveda student, practitioner or enthusiast, you know how important it is to use the authentic teachings of the ancient Vedic texts. During this series, you will be guided through the Ashtanga Hridayam by Dr. Vaidya Jayarajan Kodikannath word-by-word, illuminating the deepest aspects of the Ayurvedic principles. If you are new to Ayurveda, this course will set a stellar foundation for your studies.
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Dinacarya adhyaya daily regimen 22 3. Rtucarya adhyaya seasonal regimen 33 4, Rogdnutpadaniya adhyaya prevention of diseases 45 5.
Dravadravya vijiidniya adhyaya knowledge of liquid materials 33 6. Annasvarfipa vijnaniya adhyjya nature of food materials 74 7, Annaraksadhyaya protection of foods 8. Dosadi vijnaniya adhyaya knowledge of dosas etc. Dosabhediya adhyaya classification of: dosas Dosopakramaniya adhy4ya treatment of the dosas 14, Dvividhopakramaniya adhyaya two kinds of treatments 15, Sodhanadigana sangraha adhyaya groups of drugs for purificatory therapies etc, Sneha vidhi adhyaya oleation therapy 17, Svedavidhi adhyaya sudation therapy Vamana virecana vidhi adhyaya emesis and purgation therapies Basti vidhi adhyaya enema therapy Dhimapana vidhi adhyaya inhalation of smoke therapy Gandiisadi vidhi adhyaya mouth gargles and other therapies Yafitra vidhi adhyaya use of blunt instruments 26, Sastra vidhi adhyaya use of sharp instruments 27, Siravyadha vidhi adhyaya venesection 28, Salyaharaipa vidhi adhyaya removal of foreign bodies Sastrakarma vidhi adhyaya surgical operation 30, Ksaragnikarma vidhi adhyaya alkaline and thermal cautery Section 2.
Sartra sthana section on anatomy, physiology etc. Page no. Viksti vijfianiya garira knowledge of bad prognosis 6, Datadi vijiianiya Sarira kaowledge of messenger etc. Appendix-1 Index of diet articles and drugs— IV. Index of Sanskrit headings— V. General Index VI. It had attracted the attention of medical men not only within this country but also of neighbouring countries such as Arabia, Persia, Tibet and Germany. Its popularity is substantiated by the large number of commenta- ries by Indian scholars and appreciation by the scholars of many other countries.
Nature and contents of the treatise : Astafigahydaya contains six sthanas sections each sthana consisting of varying number of adhyayas chapters ; the total number of chapters being , The text is composed entirely in poetry. The total number of verses is in the extant edition. There are short prose lines also, two at the commencement of each chapter. The sthands sections and their important contents are :— 1, Satrasthana :-—The first section has 30 chapters dealing with basic doctrines of Ayurveda, principles of health, pre- vention of diseases, properties of articles of diet and drugs, humoral physiology and pathology, different kinds of diseases and methods of treatment.
Edited by Harisastry Paradkar, published by Nirnayasagar press, Bombay, and reprinted by Chaukhambha Oricntalia, Varanasi, , x 2. Sarira sthanaThe second section has 6 chapters dealing with embryology, anatomy, physiology, physiognomy, physical and psychological constitutions, auspicious and inauspitious dreams and omens, signs of bad prognosis and of oncoming death.
Nidana sthana:—The third section with 16 chapters describes the causes, premonitory symptoms, charectorestic features, pathogenesis and prognosis of some important diseases coming within the realm of Kaya cikits inner medicine. Cikitsa sthana :—The fourth section has 22 chapters elaborating the methods of treatment of all major organic diseases, including efficacious medicinal recipes, diet and care of the patient.
Uttara sthana :—The sixth and the last section is devoted to the remaining seven branches of Ayurveda. It has 40 chapters in total; divided as follows, viz.
Salya cikitsa surgery has 10 chapters; Damstra toxicology has 4; Jara cikitsa r: yana , rejuvination therapy, geriatrics and Vrsa vaji- karana virilification therapy, aphrodisiacs have one chapter each, Greater portion of the text being devoted to Kaya cikitsa- inner medicine is thus conspicuous. These statements vouchsafe the authenticity and reliability of information contained in the text, Author :-— Unfortunately the author of Astafighydaya has not furnished cither his name or any other information about himself anywhere in the text.
The following internal and external evide- nees form the basis for identification. Based on these points, it is now generally agreed that the author of Astafiga hrdaya is also Vagbhata. The next problem that has to be solved is whether both Astafiga sangraha and Astafiga hydaya are authored by one and the same person— Vagbhata, son of Simhagupta or whether the authors are different persons of the same name, This has been a subject of long discussion and has created two groups of scholars.
First group which considers the author of both the texts as one and the same person-Vagbhata, son of Simhagupta. Bhattacarya, Swami Laksmiramji, Hardatta sastry, editorial board of Caraka Samhita, Jamnagar edition, Nanda- kisore Sarma, Atrideva Gupta and some others among the present day scholars.
Second group which considers the authors of the two texts as different persons; Vagbbata, son of Simhagupta as the author of Asfafigasangraha Vagbhata I and another Vagbhata Vagbhata II as the author of Astafigahrdaya. Jolly, P. Gode, P. Ray, Hariprapannaji, G. Mukhyopadhyaya, Priyavrata sarma and some others among the modern scholars are in this group. Their opinion is based on the following points : a commentators have used two distinct terms, viz.
This represents the traditional view. Before aligning with any one of the two groups, it is nece- ssary to have a brief comparison of both the texts, Astafigaangraha Astafigahrdaya 1. Nature of composition a Archeac style contai- ning both prose and poetry, with difficult words, long sentences, new style containing only poetry, easily understan- dable.
Pune, Prose passages long and short, have been seri- ally numbered along with verses. XV Astafigasangraha Astafigahydaya 4.
Branchwise break-up in Uttara sthana : a Bala cikitsa 5 3 b Graha cikitsa c Ordhoatiga cikitsa : i netra roga cikitsa 10 9 ii karna roga 2 2 iii nasa roga 2 2 iv mukha roga. These verses are neither found in Astafigasangraha nor in Astafigahrdaya, but closely resemble the verses of these texts. This makes it imperative to accept. Meulenbeld G. Madhava nidana and its chief commentaries pp. Jejjata—Nirafitara pada vyakhy4—Caraka samhita—ci.
Nigcalakara-Ratnaprabha vyakhya on Cakradattas cikitsa sangraha. Sivadasa sena-Tatvabodha vyakhya on A. I think that in all probability, Astafigivatara might be the Madhya Vagbhata. Both Jejjata and lidu, the commentators have used this term. Astafiga nighantu is a small treatise dealing with synonyms of drugs mentioned in Astafiga sangraha. Priyavrata Sarma who has edited the text with three of its manuscripts, has proved that the work is not that of Vagbhata, the author of Astafiga hydaya and it can only be assigned to a later period 8th century AD?
Rasaratna Samuccaya-the author of this text calls himself as Vagbhata, son of Simhagupta.? Rasaratna samuccaya deals with medical chemistry, chemical pharmacy and treat- ment of diseases with mercurial and mineral drugs marking the second phase of Rasasastra and assignable to 12th Century AD.
The author is proved to be a pseudo-Vagbhata, a per- son who has concealed his real name; posterior to the author of Astafiga sangraha and Astafiga hrdaya by more than six centuries.
Date of Vaghhata : The date of Vagbhata of Astafigasangraha and As afiga hydaya has to be determined on the following evidences : 1. No, Xvi 1. This is the upper limit of the date of Vagbhata. Varahamihira lived between and AD. This date is taken as the lower limit for the date of Vagbhata. This in all probabality refers to Vagbhata, 5. The religious, social and economic conditions described in Astafiga sangraha and Astafiga hrdaya pertain to the early phase of Gupta era of Indian history 5th-7th century AD 6.
Madhavakara 8th century AD in his book Rugvini- Scaya madhava nidina has quoted many verses from Astafiga hrdaya. Brihat samhita. Other notices of his life : According to his own statement he was born in Sindh and his preceptor was Avalokita. Recently European scholars have postulated that Ravi- gupta, the author of Siddhasdra, a medical treatise is the brother of Simhagupta. Jejjata the commentator describes Vagbhata as mahajanhu pati-king of mahajanhu4 Niscalakara another commentator calls Vagbhata-a rajarisi.
Majhand about fifty miles to the, north of Hyderabad if Karachi district of Pakistan which might have been the ancient site. We may also persume that Mahajahnou might be a famous seat of learing and Vagbhata as its chief.
Jejjata-Nirafitarapada Vyakhya. Niscalakara-Ratnaprabha Vyakhya. Priyavrata SarmA-Vagbhata vivecana-p. Unfortunately no definite records-either epigraphical or literary-has been traced so far in Kerala to substantiate the presence of Vagbhata there. The religion to which Vagbhata belonged is another subject of interesting discussion.
One set of scholars argue that Vagbhata was a Brahmin following the Vedic tradition. The basis for such a view are-mention of Ayurveda as an upaveda of Atharvaveda, performance of propititory and magical rites according to Atharvaveda, advice for the worship of gods-Siva, Sivasuta.
Hara, Hari and other divine beings, the cow, the brahmana ete; description of Sisyopana- yana ceremony, advise not to enter a caitya Buddhist shrine , not forbidding of meat and aicohol in daily use-all these and many more such are enough to accept him as a Brahmin. Another set of scholars argue that Vagbhata was a Buddhist ascan be decided on the following points-the Buddha is specifically named in the invocatory verse of Astafiga sangraha and indirectly in that of Agtafiga hrdaya; Avalokita the prece- ptor was a renowned Buddhist scholar, mention of names of Arya Tara, Parnagabari, Jina, Jinasuta, Samyaksambuddha, , Baisajyaguru, etc.
Without much difficulty both these views can be combined together, justifiably also, to accept Vagbhata to have been born asa Brahmin, studied Vedic literature, following its Practices in his early life and in later life embraced Buddhism which was the popular religion then, Hence he has reverence to ancient Vedic precepts and practices, as well as to those XxXI of Buddhism.
The great scholar Varahmihira is another example of persons who became Buddhist in later life and exhibited equal respect to both the Hindu and Buddhist religions in their works. Even Cafidrata does not mention the name of Vagbhata anywhere in it, From inte- rnal and external evidences Tisata and Cafidrata are assigned to 10th and 11th Century AD respectively. Hence it is difficult to accept Tisata as the son and Cafidrata as the grandson of Vagbhata of Astafiga hrdaya.
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Dinacarya adhyaya daily regimen 22 3. Rtucarya adhyaya seasonal regimen 33 4, Rogdnutpadaniya adhyaya prevention of diseases 45 5. Dravadravya vijiidniya adhyaya knowledge of liquid materials 33 6. Annasvarfipa vijnaniya adhyjya nature of food materials 74 7, Annaraksadhyaya protection of foods 8.