Akinokora ASTM D — 13 If d47, obtain the values from a table giving the areas of segments of a unit circle for the ratio of the height of the segment to the diameter of the circle. Maintain the vessel completely full of water during the immersion period. ASTM D von At the end of the 18 h remove the specimens from the oil and allow to rest at room temperature for a sstm of 4 6 1? The test voltage is permitted to be of either polarity. See Test Methods D for a more complete discussion of the signi? This test provides useful data for research and development, engineering design, quality control, and acceptance or rejection under speci?
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Standard Test Methods for Crosslinked Insulations and Jackets for Wire and Cable1 This standard is issued under the xed designation D; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision.
A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense. Scope 1. To determine the test to be made on the particular insulation or jacket, refer to the product specication for that type. These test methods do not apply to the class of products known as exible cords. Therefore, tests are done on insulated or jacketed wire or cable in these test methods solely to determine the relevant property of the insulation or jacket and not to test the conductor or completed cable.
For specic hazards see Section 4. Referenced Documents 2. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro1 These test methods are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D09 on Electrical and Electronic Insulating Materials and are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D Current edition approved Feb. Published February Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as D DOI: No further reproductions authorized.
D 13 2. Terminology 3. Hazards 4. The exposure limits are set by governmental agencies and are usually based upon recommendations made by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Mercury, being a liquid with high surface tension and quite heavy, will disperse into small droplets and seep into cracks and crevices in the oor. This increased area of exposure adds signicantly to the mercury vapor concentration in air. The use of a commercially available emergency spill kit is recommended whenever a spill occurs.
Mercury vapor concentration is easily monitored using commercially available sniffers. Make spot checks periodically around operations where mercury is exposed to the atmosphere. Make thorough checks after spills. See 8. It is essential that the test apparatus, and all associated equipment electrically connected to it, be properly designed and installed for safe operation. Design test equipment, test chambers, and test specimens so as to minimize the possibility of such occurrences and to eliminate the possibility of personal injury.
If the potential for re exists, have re suppression 4 Available from the Insulated Cable Engineers Assoc. Box , South Yarmouth, MA See Sections 20, 27, 33, 42, 48, 54, 62, 68, 76, , and Ozone has a distinctive odor which is initially discernible at low concentrations but sustained inhalation of ozone can cause temporary loss of sensitivity to the scent of ozone.
Because of this it is important to measure the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere, using commercially available monitoring devices, whenever the odor of ozone is persistently present or when ozone generating conditions continue.
Use appropriate means, such as exhaust vents, to reduce ozone concentrations to acceptable levels in working areas.
See Section Signicance and Use 5. The physical test values give an approximation of how the insulation will physically perform in its service life. Physical tests provide useful data for research and development, engineering design, quality control, and acceptance or rejection under specications.
Physical Tests 6. Sampling 7. No sample shall be selected from lots of less than ft. D 13 25 ft and m of wire or cable and one additional sample for each additional 25 ft. Test Specimens 8. The amalgamation is assisted by rst immersing and rubbing the tinning on the exposed end of the conductor in the mercury. It is also possible to facilitate the removal of the insulation by stretching the conductor to the breaking point in a tensile-strength machine.
See 4. Care should be exercised to keep mercury from the hands. The use of rubber gloves is recommended for handling specimens as in 8. Make an effort to separate the jacket from the insulation by slitting the covering through to the conductor and pulling the jacket and insulation apart by pliers. Immersing the sample in hot water for a few minutes just prior to pulling off the jacket often facilitates this procedure.
If the jacket cannot be removed, prepare specimens by buffing. Equip the buffing apparatus with a cylindrical table arranged so that it can be advanced very gradually. Remove the conductor from two short lengths of wire by slitting the covering. Stretch one length of covering into the clamps of the buffing apparatus so that it lies at, with the jacket toward the wheel.
The jacket is buffed off, with due care not to buff any further than necessary, or overheat the material. Repeat the process with the other length of covering, except that the insulation is buffed off. Die-cut specimens shall be prepared from the buffed pieces after they have been allowed to recover for at least 30 min. Jackets with a thickness of less than 0. After irregularities, corrugations, and reinforcing cords or wires have been removed, the test specimen shall conform to the dimensions shown in Fig.
The thickness of the test specimen shall be not greater than 0. Split the specimen longitudinally with a new razor blade to a point 0. Perform tests between 24 h and 60 days after crosslinking unless agreed to by the manufacturer. Do not heat, immerse in water, or subject the specimens to any mechanical or chemical treatment not specically prescribed in these methods, unless agreed upon by the producer and the purchaser.
Age specimens having cable tape applied prior to crosslinking with such tape removed. One specimen of each three shall be tested and the other two specimens held in reserve, except that when only one sample is selected all three specimens shall be tested and the average of the results reported.
For the tear test, six individual specimens as described in 8. When the full cross section is used, the specimens shall not be cut longitudinally.
In the case of wire and cable of AWG 6 and larger, or in the case of wire and cable smaller than AWG 6 having an insulation thickness greater than 0. In extreme cases, use of a segmental specimen is permitted.
Specimens for tests on jackets shall be taken from the completed wire or cable and cut parallel to the axis of the wire or cable. With the exception of the tear tests, the test specimen shall be either a segment or sector cut with a suitable sharp instrument or a shaped specimen cut out with a die and shall have a cross-sectional area not greater than 0. Remove surface irregularities, such as corrugations due to stranding, etc. In most cases a test specimen which is an entire section is obtained, free from surface incisions and imperfections.
Warningsee 4. Introduce the mercury at one end of the specimen between the insulation and the tinned surface of the conductor, with the specimen inclined on a support with the end to which the mercury is applied at the top.
D 13 9. Measurement of Thickness of Specimens 9. The micrometer and microscope shall be capable of making measurements accurate to at least 0. Take the minimum thickness of the insulation as the difference between a measurement made over the conductor or any separator plus the thinnest insulation wall, and the diameter over the conductor or any separator. Make the rst measurement after slicing off the thicker side of the insulation. Do not include the thickness of any separator in the thickness of insulation.
Take the average of these determinations as the average thickness of the jacket. Take the average of these determinations as the average thickness. When the lot consists of more than two coils or reels and less than 20 coils or reels, make at least one determination of the thickness on each of two coils or reels taken at random.
Calculation of Area of Specimens Calculate the area of a stranded conductor from its maximum diameter. The height of the segment is the thickness of insulation on the side from which the slice is taken. If necessary, obtain the values from a table giving the areas of segments of a unit circle for the ratio of the height of the segment to the diameter of the circle. This applies either to a straight test specimen or to one stamped out with a die, and assumes that corrugations have been removed.
Physical Test Procedures For the set test mark the specimens with gage marks 2 in. Place the specimen in the jaws of the testing machine with a maximum distance between jaws of 4 in.
Release the test specimen within 5 s, and determine the distance between bench marks 1 min after the beginning of release. The set is the difference between this length and the original 2-in. Place the two halves of the split end of the test specimen in the jaws of the tension testing machine and separate the jaws at the rate of 20 in. Determine the tear resistance by dividing the load in pounds or kilograms required to tear the section by the thickness of the test specimen in inches or millimeters.
Consider the average of the results obtained on all test specimens as the value of the tear resistance.
ASTM D470. Crosslinked Insulations and Jackets for Wire and Cable1