Jessica marked it as to-read May 27, You already recently rated this item. Cited References and Bibliography. Black-box testing : techniques for functional testing of software and systems Includes numerous self-evaluation quizzes and tax forms. Boris Beizer clearly explains the principles behind behavioraltesting in general and behind the most important black-box testingtechniques in use today, which involve testing a system based onits desired behavior or function and for conformance to itsspecifications.
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Main focus in black box testing is on functionality of the system as a whole. Each testing method has its own advantages and disadvantages. There are some bugs that cannot be found using only black box or only white box.
Majority of the applicationa are tested by black box testing method. We need to cover majority of test cases so that most of the bugs will get discovered by blackbox testing. Black box testing occurs throughout the software development and Testing life cycle i. Tools used for Black Box testing: Black box testing tools are mainly record and playback tools.
These tools are used for regression testing that to check whether new build has created any bug in previous working application functionality.
Advantages of Black Box Testing — Tester can be non-technical. So writing test cases is slow and difficult — Chances of having unidentified paths during this testing Methods of Black box Testing: Graph Based Testing Methods: Each and every application is build up of some objects.
All such objects are identified and graph is prepared. From this object graph each object relationship is identified and test cases written accordingly to discover the errors.
Error Guessing: This is purely based on previous experience and judgment of tester. Error Guessing is the art of guessing where errors can be hidden. For this technique there are no specific tools, writing the test cases that cover all the application paths. Boundary Value Analysis: Many systems have tendency to fail on boundary. So testing boundry values of application is important. Kinds of ranges Generalizing ranges depends on the nature or type of variables Advantages of Boundary Value Analysis 1.
Robustness Testing — Boundary Value Analysis plus values that go beyond the limits 2. Forces attention to exception handling Limitations of Boundary Value Analysis Boundary value testing is efficient only for variables of fixed values i.
Equivalence Partitioning: Equivalence partitioning is a black box testing method that divides the input domain of a program into classes of data from which test cases can be derived. How is this partitioning performed while testing: 1. If an input condition specifies a range, one valid and one two invalid classes are defined. If an input condition requires a specific value, one valid and two invalid equivalence classes are defined. If an input condition specifies a member of a set, one valid and one invalid equivalence class is defined.
If an input condition is Boolean, one valid and one invalid class is defined. Comparison Testing: Different independent versions of same software are used to compare to each other for testing in this method. Boundary value analysis and Equivalence partitioning, explained with simple example: Boundary value analysis and equivalence partitioning both are test case design strategies in black box testing. Equivalence Partitioning: In this method the input domain data is divided into different equivalence data classes.
This method is typically used to reduce the total number of test cases to a finite set of testable test cases, still covering maximum requirements. In short it is the process of taking all possible test cases and placing them into classes. One test value is picked from each class while testing. Using equivalence partitioning method above test cases can be divided into three sets of input data called as classes. Each test case is a representative of respective class.
So in above example we can divide our test cases into three equivalence classes of some valid and invalid inputs. Test cases for input box accepting numbers between 1 and using Equivalence Partitioning: 1 One input data class with all valid inputs. Pick a single value from range 1 to as a valid test case. If you select other values between 1 and then result is going to be same. So one test case for valid input data should be sufficient. So using equivalence partitioning you have categorized all possible test cases into three classes.
Test cases with other values from any class should give you the same result. We have selected one representative from every input class to design our test cases. Test case values are selected in such a way that largest number of attributes of equivalence class can be exercised. Equivalence partitioning uses fewest test cases to cover maximum requirements.
More application errors occur at the boundaries of input domain. Boundary value analysis is a next part of Equivalence partitioning for designing test cases where test cases are selected at the edges of the equivalence classes.
Test cases for input box accepting numbers between 1 and using Boundary value analysis: 1 Test cases with test data exactly as the input boundaries of input domain i. Boundary value analysis is often called as a part of stress and negative testing. Note: There is no hard-and-fast rule to test only one value from each equivalence class you created for input domains.
You can select multiple valid and invalid values from each equivalence class according to your needs and previous judgments.
Same case for other test cases having invalid data classes. This should be a very basic and simple example to understand the Boundary value analysis and Equivalence partitioning concept.
Black Box Testing: An In-depth Tutorial with Examples and Techniques
BLACK BOX TESTING BY BORIS BEIZER PDF