JoJora We also retain data in relation to our visitors and registered users for internal purposes and for sharing information with our business partners. Development of a questionnaire measure of emotional control. In our study, the following scores were reported: Aging and health — an agenda half completed. Procedure and ethical considerations The study was performed from February to June Preferred health behaviors and quality of life of the elderly people in Poland.
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Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between emotional suppression and psychological distress in breast cancer patients after surgery. We examined this relationship using questionnaires at the first visit to the breast cancer outpatient clinic at our hospital and after surgery, as well as interviews after surgery.
Methods A total of 31 breast cancer patients were asked to complete the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale and the Profile of Mood States at their first visit to the outpatient clinic. Patients were also asked to complete the Profile of Mood States between 1 and 6 months after surgery. Trained clinical psychologists conducted the interviews, asking patients to speak freely about their current anxieties, worries and thoughts. Based on the median Courtauld Emotional Control Scale score of 42 points, participants were divided into emotional suppression and emotional expression groups.
Results The Total Mood Disturbance score, as well as each of the subscale except vigor scores of the Profile of Mood States, were significantly higher in the emotional suppression group than the emotional expression group.
The emotional suppression group expressed significantly more negative emotions and fewer positive emotions than the emotional expression group. Conclusions Patients with emotional suppression felt and expressed more psychological distress after surgery.
This finding highlights the need for medical staff to comprehend the psychological traits of breast cancer patients, including emotional suppression, in the early stages of breast cancer in order to provide adequate psychological support.
Breast cancer patients, however, tend to experience psychological distress during diagnosis and treatment that Friedman et al. A diagnosis of breast cancer can be worrying 3 and is frequently associated with anxiety and depression 4 , but breast cancer patients also experience psychological distress after surgery due to the psychological burden of long-term treatments 5 such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment.
These therapies can have debilitating side effects 6— Furthermore, patients undergoing treatments also experience psychological distress from a fear of recurrence. Even after the 10th post-operative year, cancer still recurs with a more fixed frequency Therefore, psychological distress is frequently observed in breast cancer patients during the clinical course of this disease Thus, it is important to focus on post-operative psychological distress in these patients.
Many factors, including trait anxiety 18 , emotional suppression 19 , neuroticism 20 and optimism 2 , can increase psychological distress in breast cancer patients.
Emotional suppression in particular has attracted considerable attention. Morris et al. Watson et al. Iwamitsu et al. Ando et al. These studies underscore the need to consider emotional suppression as an important factor that influences psychological distress in breast cancer patients.
As discussed above, patients tend to experience psychological distress regarding side effects and the fear of recurrence. Therefore, it will be informative to examine the relationship between emotional suppression as a key interpersonal difference and psychological distress among breast cancer patients after surgery.
Through this, we hope to determine whether emotional suppression is involved in psychological distress after surgery and explore ways to link these findings to the treatment of breast cancer patients. Okazaki et al. While the study also highlighted the need to comprehend the multi-faceted nature of psychological response by analyzing interview contents in detail, it did not examine the relationship between psychological response and emotional suppression.
Based on the approach suggested by Okazaki et al. We revealed that breast cancer patients with emotional suppression felt higher levels of psychological distress and expressed more negative emotions than patients with emotional expression after receiving the diagnosis No interview-based studies have examined this relationship in breast cancer patients after surgery.
As mentioned above, patients tend to suffer from side effects and the fear of recurrence after surgery. Therefore, it is important to examine this relationship with a focus on emotional suppression after surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between emotional suppression and psychological distress in breast cancer patients after surgery.
In particular, we focused on interview contents after surgery to examine this relationship by dividing patients into two groups. Patients completed the questionnaire at a time that coincided with the analysis of interview contents, i. Seventy-four of the patients were diagnosed with breast cancer, and 32 of the diagnosed patients were interviewed following surgery.
Abbreviation for Courtauld Emotional Control Scale
Shaktit The scores of STAI as a trait are very frequently associated with earlier development of anxiety disorders, such as, obsessive—compulsive disorders. The studies involved women treated surgically for various gynaecological ailments and were carried out in two stages: In reference to the aim of the study, we formulated the following hypothesis to test via questionnaire-based study: The overall indicator of emotion control is within the range of 21—84 points. The scale is used to measure subjective control of anger, anxiety, and depression in difficult situations and designed to examine adults both healthy and ill. Table 4 The level of self-efficacy in the respondents with regard to gender, study group affiliation, and age Abbreviations: In the study mentioned, only two patients presented a high level of anxiety understood as a state above 60 pointswhile no patient had a high score in case of anxiety understood as a trait. The scale is designated to examine healthy and ill adults. In reference to the aim of the study, we formulated the following hypothesis to test via questionnaire-based study:.
Courtauld Emotional Control Scale日本語版の作成と信頼性・妥当性の検討
Emotional reactions and needs of family members of ICU patients.