Charles had inherited the Angevin claim to the kingdom, which was then ruled by Alfonso II, a member of an originally illegitimate branch of the royal dynasty of Aragon. The initial French advance went well. Milan was an ally. Medici-ruled Florence fell quickly, and the French helped with the restoration of Republican government. As the French approached Alfonso abdicated in favour of his more popular son Ferdinand II , but the new king was also unable to stop the French and was forced to flee to Sicily.

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Animation not displaying properly? Significance This battle is classified as a draw and had little eventual consequence but did create a situation in which decisive results and consequences were possible.

In a strategic sense, the French were able to achieve their objective of continuing their retreat to France as a result of their tactical victory over League forces on every front. However, League cavalry was able to loot the French baggage train, claiming , gold ducats as well as forcing most French soldiers to go without tents, dry clothes and food for the night Nicolle, Aside from sowing tensions among the League commanders, the League army may have been in a better state compared to the French after the battle, suffering proportionately fewer casualties and possessing more fresh soldiers.

Of course, neither army followed up the battle with any bold action, and thus the battle is remembered only as an indecisive draw. The League plan correctly identified the French center and Charles as the most promising target and allotted 10, men in the battlegroups of Gonzaga, Garlino, Fortebraccio and Montefeltro to defeat the 3, men of the French center and rearguard.

However, Nicolle appears to have forgotten to multiply the number of French lances, which denote units of six, not individuals, and as such Santosuosso is favoured in this regard. I did however add the 1, low-quality infantry to the French baggage train that Nicolle mentions 53 but Santosuosso omits. New York: HarperCollins, Nicolle, David. Oxford: Osprey, Santosuosso, Antonio. International History Review Taylor, Frederick Lewis. The Art of War in Italy Westport: Greenwood,


Battle of Fornovo, 1495

This was to be preceded by the conquest of the Kingdom of Naples , to which he had a nebulous claim through his paternal grandmother, Marie of Anjou — To have his hands free in Italy, Charles made ruinous pacts with all his neighbours, so they would not interfere. However, Charles was willing to do this in his attempt to establish his Neapolitan base for his crusade. Armies comprising forces from the many independent towns of Italy were raised by establishing a contract, or condotta, between the town leaders and the leaders of mercenary bands, who came to be called Condottieri. This led to the development of tactics destined to establish field supremacy, the capture of wealthy prisoners for ransom, and the minimizing of casualties. These tactics were to be put to shame when the highly motivated armies of France and Spain descended upon the Italian peninsula.



Non soddisfatti, tagliarono loro le teste e le conficcarono sulle loro picche tornando trionfalmente al campo. La prima linea era costituita da tre squadroni di cavalleria. La squadra sulla sinistra guidata da Bernardino Fortebraccio , Vincenzo Corsico , Roberto Strozzi , Alessandro Baraldo , Giacomo Savorgnano , Annibale Martinengo , Guido Brandolini contava balestrieri a cavallo; il suo compito sarebbe stato quello di attaccare alle spalle la retroguardia francese. La squadra di cavalleria sulla destra era guidata da Galeazzo e Gian Francesco Sanseverino , Annibale Bentivoglio , Ludovico Pico della Mirandola e Galeazzo Pallavicino , contava tra cavalieri pesanti e cavalleggeri; avrebbe dovuto attaccare il secondo squadrone francese. La seconda linea era costituita da due corpi di fanteria.

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