His ideal is of a morally rigid and unchanging world of rules and norms that specifies how he is to act. Here we see the beginnings of self-criticism and the ability to envision multiple possibilities in life events. Conscientious: individuals in this stage have internalized the rules of society, but they also acknowledge the existence of exceptions and special contingencies. The ego feels guilt for hurting others rather than feeling remorse at breaking the rules.
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Jane Loevinger was born on February 6, in St. Paul, Minnesota. She was the third of five children. Her father, Gustavus Loevinger, was a German immigrant who worked as a lawyer and became a court judge in Her mother, Millie Strause, was a part-time school teacher and a pianist. Loevinger described her family as lively, formal, and competitive. Academically, Loevinger often outperformed her fellow students and she described feeling like an outsider at school.
She enrolled at the University of Minnesota for her undergraduate studies in psychology where a vocational counselor told her that psychology was "too mathematical" for her. She then enrolled at the University of California, Berkeley for her doctoral studies.
She was a research assistant for Erik Erikson. In , she completed her doctoral thesis on "Construction and Evaluation of Tests of Ability" in which she criticized psychometric theories and test reliabilities.
In , Loevinger received her Ph. She then gave birth to her first child Judith, and she did not return to work. She gave birth to their second child, Micheal Benjamin shortly before the second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.
After the war, employment opportunities for women dropped dramatically and Loevinger worked occasionally at Washington University as a part-time psychology teacher and a research assistant after moving to St. Louis for her husband to take a job. She described those days as "dark days" when she felt the sexist prejudice from departments that expected her to leave her job, to stay home and to be a "good wife and mother.
She worked with a group of women-some mothers- in her research and she obtained funding from the National Institute of Mental Health.
Loevinger and some of her students eventually published the Washington University Sentence Completion Test which later was expanded to assess ego development and moral understanding.
Loevinger and her achievements were recognized by the psychology department at Washington University and she was appointed research associate in psychology in In , she obtained a position as a full-time professor and in , she became professor emeritus, during which time she continued her research and professional activities.
Jane Loevinger was a distinguished researcher who is well known for her work on the psychology of ego development. This work resulted in many publications, including Measuring Ego Development, published in Loevinger died unexpectedly on January 4, at the age of Authoritarian family ideology: A measure, its correlates, and its robustness.
Hy, L. Measuring ego development. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Loevinger, J. The technic of homogeneous tests compared with some aspects of scale analysis and factor analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 45, Objective tests as instruments of psychological theory. Psychological Reports, 3, San Fransciso: Jossey-Bass.
Measuring ego development: 1. Construction and use of a sentence completion test. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Measuring ego development: 2. Scoring manual for women and girls. Ego development. Paradigms of personality. New York: Freeman. Technical foundations for measuring ego development: The Washington University sentence completion test. Washington: Mahwah Publications. Loevinger, Ed. Jane Loevinger. Models of achievement: Reflections of eminent women in psychology, vol.
Confessions of an iconoclast: At home on the fringe. The Journal of Personality Assessment, 78 2 ,
Jane Loevinger was born on February 6, in St. Paul, Minnesota. She was the third of five children. Her father, Gustavus Loevinger, was a German immigrant who worked as a lawyer and became a court judge in
Loevinger's stages of ego development
This section relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this section by adding secondary or tertiary sources. January Learn how and when to remove this template message Loevinger conceived of an ego-development system which closely resembles moral development , but is broader in scope and uses empirical methods of study. She also observed that a liberal, non-authoritarian personality was not the opposite of a high authoritarian personality; anomie a disorganized and detached social style was the opposite of high authoritarianism, indicating a curvilinear relationship. Loevinger theorized that this was because the Authoritarian Family Ideology scale measured just authoritarianism , but a broader concept which affected the other constructs she measured. One has not yet acquired the interpersonal logic. For some, development reaches a plateau and does not continue; for others, greater ego integration and differentiation continue.
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