JIROFT CIVILIZATION PDF

This ziggurat was discovered in , and it has been reported that it is the second ziggurat to be found in Iran, the first being the Chogha Zanbil Ziggurat. According to some sources, the Ziggurat of Jiroft is the largest and oldest structure of its kind in the world. Ziggurats are most commonly associated with the Mesopotamian civilization, which today roughly corresponds to most of Iraq plus Kuwait, and the eastern parts of Syria. Nevertheless, some of these monumental structures have also been found in the western part of Iran. One of the ways of distinguishing between Mesopotamian and Iranian ziggurats is the way these buildings were accessed.

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This ziggurat was discovered in , and it has been reported that it is the second ziggurat to be found in Iran, the first being the Chogha Zanbil Ziggurat. According to some sources, the Ziggurat of Jiroft is the largest and oldest structure of its kind in the world.

Ziggurats are most commonly associated with the Mesopotamian civilization, which today roughly corresponds to most of Iraq plus Kuwait, and the eastern parts of Syria. Nevertheless, some of these monumental structures have also been found in the western part of Iran. One of the ways of distinguishing between Mesopotamian and Iranian ziggurats is the way these buildings were accessed.

It has been pointed out that in the former, the structures were accessed by an external flight of stairs. On the other hand, the ziggurats in Iran were accessed by ramps. In Iran, the best known ziggurat is Choga Zanbil, which is located along the River Dez in the southwestern Khuzestan province. It has been dated to around B. The excavation of site B revealed a two-storey citadel with a base covering an area of Surrounding this structure were the remains of a wall These findings suggest that the structure had once been a fortified building.

This structure has been measured to be 17m in height, m in both length and width at the base, and m on each side of the second level. This huge structure covered almost the whole of the mound. As this monument structurally resembles the ziggurats of Mesopotamia, it has been suggested that buried beneath the sand may be the oldest and largest ziggurat in the world. Excavations at the Jiroft mound wikipamia It has been suggested that the ziggurat unearthed in Jiroft dates to around B.

By comparison, the oldest ziggurat in Mesopotamia, the ziggurat of Ur, is regarded as having been built around B. Some have also hypothesised that the ziggurat of Jiroft was built by the Aratta, a legendary Bronze Age kingdom whose existence has been attested in Sumerian texts.

The precise location of this civilization, however, is unclear. For instance, whilst some scholars believe that Aratta was situated in what is today Jiroft, others have suggested that this legendary kingdom was located in Azerbaijan, Baluchistan or on the Gulf. Stone vessel, Jiroft, architectural decoration.

After Majidzadeh, , p. Encyclopaedia Iranica Apart from the location of Aratta, the age of the ziggurat has also been questioned. So far, the dating of the monument has been based on two small fragments that may be written inscriptions. Undisturbed material for radiocarbon dating, however, has yet to be found.

It appears that the great mound in Jiroft has many more secrets to reveal.

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Jiroft culture

The team uncovered more than two square kilometers of remains from a city dating back to at least the late 3rd millennium BC. The "Jiroft civilization" hypothesis proposes that this "intercultural style" is in fact the distinctive style of a previously unknown, long-lived civilization. Muscarella does nevertheless acknowledge the importance of the site. Earlier excavations at Kerman were conducted by Sir Aurel Stein around

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