Western civilization I apologize in advance to those here who have already assiduously learned these Medieval history lessons and find them redundant in their intellectual ordnance. If you know the facts on the much-maligned Spanish Inquisition and the Crusades — and their historic relationship to Western civilization from your own investigation, you may skip this article. But if you only think you know and have depended for your knowldege on the usual pabulum of standard contemporary education, you should read on. The Spanish Inquisition right was, in fact, more of a national instrument than a religious persecution.
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Debra Kelly. Mainstream historians estimate that between ,—, people died, many of them women and children. Often, the victims were first beaten, raped, or both. Many also witnessed the horrific murders of their loved ones. However, some Japanese historians believe that the events in Nanking have been blown out of proportion. They contend that these acts were simply the usual killing and looting that happens during war.
A full-scale war between Japan and China had started earlier in But decades later, Japan refused to admit—or apologize for—the horrific events that had happened there. In , journalist Iris Chang was on the verge of publishing a book called The Rape of Nanking when it was abruptly pulled by its American publisher because of pressure from Japan. She refused. According to Bill Guttentag and Dan Sturman, who visited Japan in to film a documentary, the levels of denial for some Japanese range from claims that propaganda exaggerated a minor event to the belief that it never happened.
Over the course of the war, the original four divisions grew to more than Over , people wore the badge of this elite force. Nevertheless, some German political parties made an appeal to the Waffen SS veterans.
Certain newspapers also claimed that these veterans had been mistakenly confused with the gestapo. Many HIAG members had been on trial for war crimes. The HIAG also claimed to represent about two million veterans when the real number was closer to 20, They claimed to have been reformed.
But the Bielefeld scholars found that the HIAG members had a good reason for rewriting their history: They wanted their pensions. So how reformed were the members of the HIAG? In , the Pew Research Center found that about half the people they surveyed thought the Civil War had been fought over a difference in opinion about constitutional law.
Although Lincoln gave speeches about slavery dividing the country, the United Daughters of the Confederacy UDC has made a hugely successful run at rewriting that history. The book caused a major schism in what was taught in schools. With education a federal matter for the first time in history, Southern textbooks were written by authors who had previously served in the Confederate government.
It became rather common for any Southerner who suggested that the Civil War had been about slavery to be subject to ridicule, unemployment, blackballing, and social shunning. How successful was it? They also honored their native sons who had died protecting their homes against the aggression of the North. According to Juderias, other nations, especially Italy, wanted to erase from history all that was good, cultured, and civilized about Spain. However, this type of thinking actually began shortly after the publication of the treatise A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies in the s.
Although this account was initially permitted to circulate throughout Spain and into Europe, Philip II banned the book when he took the throne only a few years later. By the beginning of the 17th century, the book reappeared a few more times.
In Germany, it was said that the Spanish were vilified because of their darker complexions and their tainted blood, which had mixed with that of the Jews and the Moors. It was also considered to be one of the greatest victories in the face of dismal odds.
All historians agree that Henry V landed in France on August 14, , allied himself with the Burgundians, and led a weary, disease-plagued group across the Somme River. Contrary to the belief that the English were outnumbered 5 to 1, their analysis suggested that it was only about 2 to 1. No matter how it was won, the Battle of Agincourt was nothing short of horrific. To maintain his popularity on the home front, Henry V and his advisers probably stressed the incredible odds that the army had overcome as justification for the battle.
It also gave them a reason to celebrate the might of the English army, rather than a loss of life to blame on the crown. At the top of that list was anyone who was homosexual, particularly males. Although homosexuality was illegal in pre-Nazi Germany, the Nazis increased the level of persecution against men whom they deemed to be weak and incapable of benefiting the Nazi war machine.
Research was targeted, too. In , tens of thousands of works from the Institute for Sexual Science in Berlin were destroyed by storm troopers. Those who were convicted of homosexual acts or thoughts were sentenced to prison or concentration camps and identified by pink triangles. Supposedly, the Nazis were all about being the right kind of gay and getting rid of the wrong kind. According to the book, the Nazis originally met in gay bars.
Supposedly, every law and doctrine issued by the gay leaders of the Nazi Party furthered their antigay agenda. Instead, he claimed that they were an invention of the Vietnamese, who drove the Khmer Rouge out of Cambodia.
That appeared to be the last straw for the Cambodian government. In a rush to pass new legislation on the issue, Prime Minister Hun Sen put a bill before a special session of the government, making it illegal to deny the atrocities committed by the Khmer Rouge. Such an act is now punishable by up to two years in jail. Sen was a commander in the Khmer Rouge who switched sides and defected to Vietnam a few years before the Vietnamese pushed the Khmer Rouge out of Cambodia in They believe that such a characterization must be eliminated if Japan is to regain its sense of national pride.
A pamphlet put out by the Japanese Society for History Textbook Reform goes into astounding detail on why history needs to be rewritten. In addition to putting Japanese students on a course for success, the documentation claims that Japan has been wrongly saddled with guilt over the actions that occurred in World War II.
One of the targets of the pamphlet is a commonly reproduced mural that shows a soldier cutting and torturing a bound captive in China. School textbooks in Japan go through an extensive screening process by the Ministry of Education.
In , historian Saburo Ienaga found the process so abhorrent that he filed lawsuits against the ministry. That ruling occurred in As many as 25, people died every day during the famine, which was orchestrated by Joseph Stalin. Homes, farms, livestock, and all of the basic supplies needed for life were confiscated. People were shot or deported to the farthest reaches of Siberia, and outsiders were not allowed in the country. Even mentioning famine or hunger could get a person thrown in jail.
But denialists claim that it never happened. As far as the Soviet Union was concerned, the death of around four million Ukrainians was either propaganda or mass delusion. Later, information came from the few survivors who managed to escape Ukraine after the famine.
Those survivors compiled their stories into an archive that was immediately dismissed. Even then, denial was rampant. It was endlessly debated whether the Holodomor had been a conscious attack on the Ukraine or just a consequence of policy gone wrong. Although the Holodomor could no longer be dismissed as a fabrication of Ukrainian refugees, the millions of Ukrainian deaths from the famine were only written into the history books after Ukraine gained its independence in He also said that we needed to reevaluate our collective belief that the Founding Fathers were selfless and valiant.
The basis of his claim was that those who wrote the Constitution were mostly wealthy landowners, and those who supported it at the state level were also of the wealthy upper class. These rich people had invested in the American Revolution, and once it was over, they wanted to make their investment back.
So the Constitution was drafted—along with strong tax laws—to make sure that the wealthy got their money back. Beard was a personal friend of Woodrow Wilson. For a time, his theory was considered to be sound and was even taught in colleges. McDonald collected a huge amount of data on the thousands of men who had gone on record as being involved in the debate over the Constitution.
He found that there was no trace of the supposed correlation that Beard had reported between men who had public holdings and those who voted in favor of the Constitution. But the s research appeared to uncover his true agenda.
His work was meant to support a more contemporary, progressive reform movement that would try to equalize the distribution of wealth in his day.
By characterizing the supporters of the Constitution as selfish, greedy men, the redistribution of wealth appeared to be a move that was simply righting an old wrong. He almost pulled it off.
Amazon Second Chance Pass it on, trade it in, give it a second life. English Julkan a language for shopping. Evidence of this can be found in the caves of Maltravieso and El Conejar. Follow the Author Al Judeira is located horizontally 9. Her late father, Yitzhak Isaac Levy — , was a composer and hazzan cantoras well as a pioneer researcher into the long and rich history of the Ladino music and culture of Spanish Jewry and its diaspora, being the editor of the Ladino language magazine Aki Yerushalayim. Get fast, free shipping with Amazon Prime. Member feedback about Encomienda: Geography The city of Rhodes is situated in the north-east tip of the island and forms a triangle from north to south.
La leyenda negra – Julián Juderías
La leyenda negra
Julián Juderías y Loyot