Meghaduta is separated into two parts — Purvamegha Previous cloud and Uttaramegha Consequent cloud. According to the story, Kubera, treasurer to the Gods, possesses a band of celestial attendees working for him, named the Yakshas. One of these Yakshas was so besotted and preoccupied with his wife that he absolutely disregarded his duties. As a consequence, he was cursed and banished into the thickness of earthly woods.
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Early life[ edit ] Scholars have speculated that Kalidasa may have lived near the Himalayas , in the vicinity of Ujjain , and in Kalinga. Lakshmi Dhar Kalla — , a Sanskrit scholar and a Kashmiri Pandit , wrote a book titled The birth-place of Kalidasa , which tries to trace the birthplace of Kalidasa based on his writings.
He concluded that Kalidasa was born in Kashmir , but moved southwards, and sought the patronage of local rulers to prosper. Description of geographical features common to Kashmir, such as tarns and glades Mention of some sites of minor importance that, according to Kalla, can be identified with places in Kashmir.
These sites are not very famous outside Kashmir, and therefore, could not have been known to someone not in close touch with Kashmir. Reference to certain legends of Kashmiri origin, such as that of the Nikumbha mentioned in the Kashmiri text Nilamata Purana ; mention in Shakuntala of the legend about Kashmir being created from a lake.
This legend, mentioned in Nilamata Purana, states that a tribal leader named Ananta drained a lake to kill a demon. Ananta named the site of the former lake now land as "Kashmir", after his father Kashyapa. According to Kalla, Shakuntala is an allegorical dramatization of Pratyabhijna philosophy a branch of Kashmir Shaivism.
Kalla further argues that this branch was not known outside of Kashmir at that time. When no man could pass the test, the frustrated citizens decided to send Kalidasa, an unintelligent man, for an interview with the princess.
Kalidasa fared poorly, and was greatly humiliated by the princess. Challenged by the princess, he visited a Kali temple, and was inspired to learn Sanskrit; he studied the Puranas and other ancient texts, and become a great poet. A section of scholars believe that this legendary Vikramaditya is not a historical figure at all. There are other kings who ruled from Ujjain and adopted the title Vikramaditya, the most notable ones being Chandragupta II r.
Several Western scholars have supported this theory, since the days of William Jones and A. Srinivasachariar and T. Narayana Sastri, believe that all the works attributed to "Kalidasa" are not by a single person. According to Srinivasachariar, writers from 8th and 9th centuries hint at the existence of three noted literary figures that share the name Kalidasa.
Krishnamoorthy, "Vikramaditya" and "Kalidasa" were used as common nouns to describe any patron king and any court poet respectively. It was among the first Sanskrit works to be translated into English , and has since been translated into many languages.
A mishap befalls them when he is summoned back to court: Shakuntala, pregnant with their child, inadvertently offends a visiting sage and incurs a curse, by which Dushyanta will forget her completely until he sees the ring he has left with her.
The ring is found by a fisherman who recognizes the royal seal and returns it to Dushyanta, who regains his memory of Shakuntala and sets out to find her. As an immortal, she has to return to the heavens, where an unfortunate accident causes her to be sent back to the earth as a mortal with the curse that she will die and thus return to heaven the moment her lover lays his eyes on the child which she will bear him. Kumarasambhavam means the birth of a son to goddess Parvati and shiva.
Translations[ edit ] Montgomery Schuyler, Jr. The earliest surviving commentaries appear to be those of the 10th-century Kashmirian scholar Vallabhadeva. It was first translated to English and then from English to German, where it was received with wonder and fascination by a group of eminent poets, which included Herder and Goethe.
I name thee, O Sakuntala! Eastwick "Here the poet seems to be in the height of his talent in representation of the natural order, of the finest mode of life, of the purest moral endeavor, of the most worthy sovereign, and of the most sober divine meditation; still he remains in such a manner the lord and master of his creation. Chevalier Nadigar Thilagam Sivaji Ganesan played the part of the poet himself. Ashadh Ka Ek Din is a play based on fictionalized elements of Kalidasa life. Influences[ edit ] Kalidasa has had great influence on several Sanskrit works, on all Indian literature.
Theater of Memory: The Plays of Kalidasa. NY: Columbia University Press, Problems of Ancient India, p.
Meghadutam of Kalidasa with Sanskrit Commentary and English Translation
Early life[ edit ] Scholars have speculated that Kalidasa may have lived near the Himalayas , in the vicinity of Ujjain , and in Kalinga. Lakshmi Dhar Kalla — , a Sanskrit scholar and a Kashmiri Pandit , wrote a book titled The birth-place of Kalidasa , which tries to trace the birthplace of Kalidasa based on his writings. He concluded that Kalidasa was born in Kashmir , but moved southwards, and sought the patronage of local rulers to prosper. Description of geographical features common to Kashmir, such as tarns and glades Mention of some sites of minor importance that, according to Kalla, can be identified with places in Kashmir. These sites are not very famous outside Kashmir, and therefore, could not have been known to someone not in close touch with Kashmir.
This it obviously is not. It is fair enough to call it an elegiac poem, though a precisian might object to the term. We have already seen, in speaking of The Dynasty of Raghu, what admiration Kalidasa felt for his great predecessor Valmiki, the author of the Ramayana; and it is quite possible that an episode of the early epic suggested to him the idea which he has exquisitely treated in The Cloud-Messenger. In the Ramayana, after the defeat and death of Ravana, Rama returns with his wife and certain heroes of the struggle from Ceylon to his home in Northern India. The journey, made in an aerial car, gives the author an opportunity to describe the country over which the car must pass in travelling from one end of India to the other. The hint thus given him was taken by Kalidasa; a whole canto of The Dynasty of Raghu the thirteenth is concerned with the aerial journey. This plan is slight and fanciful.