Er waren in het Bali Barat natuurreservaat nog hoogstens 50 exemplaren van de die er waren toen de soort in beschreven werd. De balispreeuw is in het wild dus bijna uitgestorven. Echter, door een fokprogramma binnen de dierentuinen wordt de soort niet meer met definitief uitsterven bedreigd. Er zijn al verschillende malen pogingen ondernomen om balispreeuwen uit te zetten op Bali.
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At the Waddesdon Aviary The Bali myna is a medium-large bird around 25 centimetres 9. It is almost wholly white with a long, drooping crest, black wing-tips and tail tip. It has a yellow bill with blue bare skin around the eyes and legs. The black-winged starling Sturnus melanopterus , a similar species, has a shorter crest and a much larger area of black on wings and tail, plus a yellow eye-ring without feathers and legs. An endemic subspecies , the Bali tiger , has been extinct since The bird was discovered in , and in was designated the faunal emblem of Bali.
Featured on the Indonesian rupiah coin, its local name is jalak Bali. Behaviour and ecology[ edit ] Two juveniles In its natural habitat it is inconspicuous, using tree tops for cover and—unlike other starlings—usually coming to the ground only to drink or to find nesting materials; this would seem to be an adaptation to its noticeability to predators when out in the open.
The Bali mynah often gathers in groups when it is young to better locate food and watch out for predators. The birds nest in tree cavities, with the female laying and incubating two or three eggs.
Both males and females bring food to the nest for chicks after hatching. The Bali myna is critically endangered , and the wild population has been close to extinction since at least As of , less than adults are assumed to exist in the wild, with about 1, believed to survive in captivity. Trade even in captive-bred specimens is strictly regulated and the species is not generally available legally to private individuals.
However, experienced aviculturalists may become affiliated with captive-breeding programs, allowing them to legally keep this species. The number of captive birds bought on the black market is estimated to be twice the number of legally acquired individuals in the captive breeding programs. As collateral every breeder should put up a cow in case all the birds died. The breeders are obliged to release 10 percent of the brood into the national park and the rest can be sold off privately. During the s over cage-bred birds were released into the park to increase their numbers.
But by , the park authorities estimated the number to have fallen to less than This decline was caused primarily by poachers responding to the lucrative demand for rare birds in the caged bird market. Since then, FNPF has rehabilitated and released several endangered birds onto the island of Nusa Penida, including many Bali mynas supplied from multiple breeders. A release program was started on Nusa Penida, where 64 individuals were released in and A number of further captive-bred individuals have since been rewilded, including 6 individuals on neighboring Nusa Lembongan.
The foundation expects to release approximately 10 Bali mynas each year. The birds will continue to be sourced from different breeders to increase the genetic diversity of the growing wild population on Nusa Penida. Begawan Foundation field staff have monitored the released birds on a daily basis since their release and have a dedicated Field Officer since Calculations undertaken suggest that by , even taking natural predation and death of older birds into account, there should be at least birds flying on Nusa Penida today, indicating that illegal wildlife trade is heavily impacting the population.
The breeding program then recommenced with the aim to research new release sites close by. Three birds were donated by Jurong Bird Park, and 20 came from a variety of zoos across Europe, members of the European Endangered Species Program, whose contributions of birds meant that new genetic lines would be introduced when the imported birds were paired with the local birds held at the breeding centre in Bali.
These birds were observed and their daily habits recorded by staff of the Foundation and students of the adjacent Green School. A program of conservation was undertaken with the local villages prior to the release and has the full support of the King of Sibang. Each bird has been ringed in order to identify it as it adapts to life in the wild. As this was a soft release, the birds often take the opportunity to return to the breeding site to find food and water.
However, it is evident that new sources of fruit and a variety of insects are available in the immediate vicinity that provide a full and healthy diet for these birds and their offspring.
Three male birds and one female were released in April, with support from the local community. In June, Dr. Jane Goodall , during her visit to Bali, assisted in the release of two Bali starlings. A community-based conservation program began in the village in late , providing local residents with the opportunity to breed Bali Starlings, and to be able to release F2 generation offspring within two years, and again in subsequent years.
It is also envisaged that the community will be responsible for the safety of the Bali Starlings in the wild through serious monitoring and village traditional law enforcement.
Any person from the community that is caught doing any of the above will pay a penalty of Rp10,, The Foundation also released a number of Starlings in late , creating a wild flock of Bali Starlings in the Village, which is protected by the community. It is hoped that the soft releases will give the offspring the chance to reproduce in the wild and that a program of eco-tourism can be developed to provide income for the village.
This centre is open to the local community and the general public.