Malcolm X is a complex and hair-raising subject. When we follow Malcolm through his tortured life, and it was tortured, we find ourselves face to face with some very disturbing views and statements and actions. Atheists need look no further for clear — and indeed heartrending - proof that religion is largely composed of human wish-fulfilment. The weird and racist theories spun by Elijah Muhammed, which formed a defining myth for the NOI, were as nasty as anything imagined by the author of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, or indeed Adolf Hitler. The psychology of this particular brand of racism is very clear. Quick question : when is a weird little cult a religion?
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Malcolm X is a complex and hair-raising subject. When we follow Malcolm through his tortured life, and it was tortured, we find ourselves face to face with some very disturbing views and statements and actions. Atheists need look no further for clear — and indeed heartrending - proof that religion is largely composed of human wish-fulfilment.
The weird and racist theories spun by Elijah Muhammed, which formed a defining myth for the NOI, were as nasty as anything imagined by the author of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, or indeed Adolf Hitler. The psychology of this particular brand of racism is very clear. Quick question : when is a weird little cult a religion? Answer : when it started two thousand years ago and was lucky enough to have great poets write its holy books. Anyway, the NOI took a number of concepts and ideas from Islam and threw them in a pot and stirred them up with a whole lot of invented stuff.
Not too dissimilar to Scientology and Mormonism and all the other cults. And this is what all religions did in their beginnings, of course. All deities reside in the human breast. The NOI did not do well in its first years, less than members by In opposition to every other black organisation, they preached non-involvement in politics. They were against blacks voting in elections! This is where they said that a black scientist many thousands of years ago deliberately created the white race during a eugenics experiment.
And the white race is irredemably evil. They were radical and they wanted separatism, ideally in a state of their own. They had only contempt for the tiny black middle class — they were all Toms. The NOI mindset led them down some crazy pathways. Malcolm met with the KKK, as previously Marcus Garvey had done, to discover if there were any areas they could find to work together for mutual benefit.
George Lincoln Rockwell, the Nazi leader, gave the NOI a ringing endorsement, saying that Elijah Mohammed had Gathered millions of the dirty, immoral, filthy-mouthed, lazy and repulsive people and inspired them to the point where they are clean, sober, honest, hard-working, dignified, dedicated and admirable human beings in spite of their color.
This is the guy Elijah and Malcolm had discussions with and invited to their rallies in With friends like that, hmmm? WORLD TOUR Malcolm X was clearly the human dynamo who turned this weird little cult around, barnstorming his way through American cities, charismatic, inspirational, and flattening audiences with rhetoric which this book unfailingly describes as "incendiary". He got them signing on the dotted line. Membership took off. He was the golden star and he was thought of as the likely successor to Elijah Muhammed himself.
But things happened. What to do? And then ….. Elijah Muhammed — surprise! The final tally was around eight or so. Lots of them. Other guys join rock bands because learning 4 chords is easier than inventing a theology. At the same time Elijah was getting really worried about Malcolm because Malcolm was getting more and more blatantly political.
Then came the chickens remark. Elijah had ordered Malcolm not to mention the late JFK at all. Malcolm delivered the speech and was answering questions from the crowd. Eventually dallas came up and Malcolm said it was an instance of "the chickens coming home to roost". Well, so far, so ordinary. Malcolm characterised the US government as perpetrators of huge violence against its black citizens, not to mention increasingly against Vietnamese freedom fighters.
So Malcolm just meant that ye shall reap what ye sow. Audience laughs appreciatively This was so offensive that even Elijah Muhammed was offended, and he had no time for Kennedy.
For the chickens remark Malcolm got a 90 day speaking ban from Elijah, and the 90 days ended up being forever. As Hank Williams put it, one word led to another, and the last word led to divorce. But he walked away from it. Malcolm stood at the very middle of a complex set of crossroads between Islam and America, Africa and America, religion and politics, pacifism and violence.
From to he was the very personification of these swirling torrents. What now? He was reforming his views on everything at the same time as being under the full-on media glare and scrutiny of the black population of America — and Africa too, the new independent African nations had not only heard of Malcolm, they were fascinated by him.
Imagine, a black Muslim in America! And what a guy! So Malcolm ended up with everything on his plate. He was trying to act politically as the fulcrum between black America and black Africa, and religiously as the conduit between Muslim America and orthodox Islam. He was involved with an escalating war with NOI who were issuing death threats, veiled and not so veiled, on a daily basis. Oh, and he had no source of income, so he had to flog himself around the country making lecture after lecture, engagement after engagement.
It was too much for anyone. Malcolm X, 11 March, : There will be more violence than ever this year. The whites had better understand this while there is still time. At the same time the CIA were trying to figure out how to arrest him for sedition.
MM sums this up beautifully: He was trying to appeal to so many different constituencies. He took different tones and attitudes depending on which group he was speaking to and often presented contradictory opinions only days apart. That he was not caught up in thiese contradictions more often owed to the fact that news travelled slowly across the country, that black politics was underreported, and that speeches were not regularly recorded.
That would probably have come later. The organisations he created after the NOI split did not survive his death. He was the very embodiment of painful black struggle. He laid out the fate of black Americans for all to see. You take a few million black people in chains from Africa, you dump them into a foreign land, you work them in the fields, you breed them like cattle, and then you turn around and hate them for being in the country that you brought them to.
Whilst at the same time you issue constitutions proclaiming your country to be the bastion of freedom for all. How about that? This is what Malcolm explained in brutal language that everyone could understand. The Chickens remark and many others made Malcolm the most feared and hated black man in America in 63 and He has had a spectacular posthumous career.
It became famous. It introduced the NOI to white America. Youtube is changing the way I read non-fiction.
Resenha: Malcolm X – Uma vida de reinvenções
After the brief interlude of peace stemming from the Bicesse peace accords signed in between UNITA and MPLA and ensuing elections inthere was a new round of wars lasting from until As a whole, the war in Angola was propelled by a combination of internal and external circumstances. For anthropologist Miguel Vale de Almeida the discursive field of Lusotropicalism is built like a game of mirrors played by Portuguese history, the formation of Brazil, and Portu-guese colonialism An Earth-Colored Sea The Definitive Story Behind All pdf, pedpt, reinvenee Book 4 in the Demonata series pdf, mjk, http: Consequently, the reification of Africa particularly sub-Saharan or ee Africa in most totalizing accounts of globalization serves to further reinforce the constellation of negative interpretations of the continent that have circulated amply in the West over time as highlighted by Mbembe, a, 1; and Ferguson 8. He adds that Africas participation in globalization evinces highly selective and spatially encap-sulated forms of global reinveness combined with widespread disconnec-tion and exclusion China has become a powerful example of globaliza-tion that is increasingly delinked from Westernization, while at the same time complicating the traditional NorthSouth geopolitical binary. Some critics view contemporary globalization as the continued spread of imperialism McClintock, ; Williams and Chrisman, ; Amin,or similarly as the perpetuation of the cultural and ideological rem-nants of European colonialist rule, now replicated by the United States Introduction xix Said, Regardless, it is unquestionable that Portugal has now become, more so than at the height of its maritime expansion period between the late fifteenth vlda sixteenth centuries, a multiethnic and multicultural soci-ety, and that being Portuguese or for that matter European, more so ima ever no longer means being exclusively white. These terms will be discussed throughout this study as they vidw on the various countries in question and as they are reflected in their cultural production. This constituted one more argument, in Cabrals view, in favor of taking up arms against a regime that had built uma parede de silncio 3, a wall of silence around its African colonies. Vicente is now the owner of a fishing business, around which a dense network of economic relations are built and on which many actors depend for their livelihood including the fisher-men, the female fish vendors, their families, and the community at large.
Malcolm X: Uma Vida de Reinvenções