Cerebellum Spinal cord Figure 1. Reproduced from Heller, K. Understanding physical, sensory, and health impairments [p. In fact, historians often call Descartes the founder of body—mind dualism.
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Cerebellum Spinal cord Figure 1. Reproduced from Heller, K. Understanding physical, sensory, and health impairments [p. In fact, historians often call Descartes the founder of body—mind dualism. If he had been correct, it would be hopeless to search for an explanation of mental processes for brain states. However, people have sometimes misunderstood Descartes. He generally believed the body to be a machine. Voluntary actions require a rational, nonmaterial soul and the free exercise of will.
The church, however, steadfastly endorsed the idea that animal spirits and vital forces are nonmaterial, and that all nervous activity requires such vital forces. His work Treatise on Man from which Figure 1. By the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, more precise models of the brain became possible. This advance was related, in part, to the conviction that people could explain everything by mechanics. English anatomist Thomas Willis — , best known for his work on blood circulation in the brain, theorized that all mental faculties reside in the corpus striatum, a structure deep within the cerebral hemispheres.
Others suggested that most mental faculties reside in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres. Early investigators were preoccupied with identifying the one precise part of the brain that was the seat of the mind, but they based their discussions primarily on speculation and, in fact, conducted relatively little experimentation.
Nevertheless, they were part of a movement that would become stronger in the centuries to come. Descartes proposed, erroneously, that the mind interacts with the brain at the pineal gland. National Library of Medicine. Figure 1. In his attempt to learn about anatomy, Vesalius initially depended on the work of others.
Later, he wanted to see for himself, performing the first systematic dissections of human beings done in Europe. Although some of these theories certainly must have involved the role of the brain, we know little about how advanced people such as the Egyptians and Eastern cultures approached the brain, because we lack detailed written accounts.
Common to eastern Mediterranean and African cultures was the belief that a god or gods sent diseases. For example, Egyptians viewed life as a balance between internal and external forces. They conceptualized the brain as different from the mind. As in Aristotelian theory, they considered the heart the center of mind, sensation, and consciousness. In India, one of the earliest and most important medical documents, the Atharva-Veda B.
During the Middle Ages, Arab countries demonstrated a humanist attitude toward the mentally ill, partly because of the Muslim belief that God loves the insane person. Because of this, the same treatments were available for the rich and poor. The treatment of mental patients was humanist and emphasized diets, baths, and even musical concerts especially designed to soothe the patient.
Ancient Chinese medical texts also discussed psychological concepts and psychiatric symptoms. They conceptualized many mental health disorders as illnesses or vascular disorders, as opposed to the prevailing European belief in demonic possession. Surgeons practiced trephination in eastern Mediterranean and North African countries as early as to B.
There is no evidence of trephination in ancient Japan, China, or Egypt. Because contributions to the development of neuropsychology by non-Western scholars remain unknown, we are left to wonder whether there may have been great discoveries or, alternatively, many of the same fallacies that Western cultures endorsed about the role of the brain on behavior. Thinkers formulated them, in part, from a need not only to recognize the brain as responsible for controlling behavior, but more importantly, to demonstrate precisely how the brain organizes behavior.
Early in the century, Austrian anatomist Franz Gall — , borrowing perhaps from the concept of geography the notion of borders, at a time when people were discovering and mapping new continents , postulated that the brain consists of a number of separate organs, each responsible for a basic psychological trait such as courage, friendliness, or combativeness.
Gall, a distinguished Viennese physician and teacher, suggested that mental faculties are innate and depend on the topical structures of the brain. His theory sought to describe differences in personality and cognitive traits by the size of individual brain areas. Craniology is the study of cranial capacity in relation to brain size, which indicated intelligence.
Such 13 Table 1. Amativeness: love between the sexes, desire to marry 2. Parental love: regard for offspring, pets, and so on 3. Friendship: adhesiveness, sociability, love of society 4. Inhabitiveness: love of home and country 5.
Continuity: one thing at a time, consecutiveness 6. Combativeness: resistance, defense, courage, opposition 7. Destructiveness: executiveness, force, energy 8. Alimentiveness: appetite, hunger, love of eating 9. Acquisitiveness: accumulation, frugality, economy Secretiveness: discretion, reserve, policy, management Source: Wells, S.
How to read character: New illustrated hand-book of phrenology and physiognomy p. Gall also lacked statistical or methodologic theory that would have let him reliably measure the basic skills of interest to him. Although Gall was wrong on most counts, he did help shape how we currently perceive brain—behavior relationships. For example, Gall correctly suggested that because their complexity is greatest in humans, the most intellectual parts of the brain are the frontal lobes.
He also argued that the brain is the organ of the mind and functions are grouped within it. This theory holds that if a given brain area is enlarged, then the corresponding area of the skull will also be enlarged. Conversely, a depression in the skull signals an underdeveloped area of the cortex. Phrenology, in its most popular form, involves feeling the cranial bumps to ascertain which cerebral areas are largest Figure 1.
Sophisticated mechanical equipment was developed, such as the phrenology cap Figure 1. Although Gall made remarkable discoveries in neuroanatomy, the theory of phrenology was entirely inaccurate. Specific locations on the skull were thought to correspond to specific abilities.
His student Johann Spurzheim — carried on his phrenology teachings, lecturing extensively on phrenology in the United States. As a result, phrenology societies sprang up in the United States, and the movement became increasingly popular. Phrenology in its simplistic form had followers who made sweeping statements about the brains and minds of men and women. Phrenologists also attempted cross-cultural comparisons, suggesting that the skulls of races and nations differ Phrenology machine ca.
Erroneously, phrenologists largely white individuals suggested that the skulls of white people were superior, indicating great intellectual power and strong moral sentiment. Controversy exists whether the brains of murderers and geniuses are indistinguishable or different.
Zillmer Borrowing on ideas of Gall and Spurzheim, the Nazi propaganda leadership suggested that natural biological traits decide the total being of a person, and they challenged those who sought to explain personality on any basis other than a biological or racial one.
Of course, the Nazis erred in refusing to recognize complex contributing environmental and social influences that also shape and determine behavior and individual differences.
But U. For example, in , the U. That the U. In a morbid display of unethical medicine, Nazi doctors at concentration camps routinely sent postmortem specimens of the targeted groups to Berlin to exhibit and demonstrate inferiority Lifton, In the same mode, the American public and media were invested in viewing the Nuremberg gang as biologically and psychologically abnormal.
The authorities denied this preserved in storage for later analysis. Faculty psychology and discrete localization theory continued to develop for a century. Many factors were request, however, because the bodies were to be cremated at the Dachau concentration camp and the ashes disposed of secretly. Although a variety of functional and organic disturbances may lead to aggression and violent behavior, most violence e.
Phrenology has always been a tempting theory, because it reduces complex racial views to simple physical observations.
For example, when my mother studied physics at the University of Vienna during the early s, the Nazi authorities did not have much interest in the study of individual differences. A required course during the Nazi occupation was Rassenkunde Racial Theory , which replaced psychology and philosophy. There was no specific biological or even psychological inclination found toward violence, aggression, or sadism. The Nazis were not deranged in a clinical sense.
Crazy was not the answer. The Nazis came in a variety of stripes. First, scientists were reluctant to accept a single part or component of the brain as responsible for all behavior, as had proponents of earlier theories. Third, and perhaps most important, scientists focused on the brain for their study of behavior and the mind. In a widely publicized case in , Wilson admitted to killing Anthony Daly in a fit of rage. Wilson attacked the former butcher with a cleaver to the forehead and then dismembered him.
The exceptional brain of Albert Einstein. Lancet, , —, by permission. Before the nineteenth century, people knew little about the cortex of the brain. Almost completely unexplored as to their functions, cerebral convolutions were not considered the least bit interesting.
Even nonhistorians know about his work in surgery, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuropathology. Broca presented two clinical cases to support his proposal for the locus of speech. There is a connection, or so it seemed, between the anatomy of the brain and what the brain does.
Zillmer Paul Broca identified a specific area on the convoluted surface of the human brain, approximately 1 cubic centimeter cm3 in size, as the central organ for expressive speech.
The evidence for this, however, was particularly weak, and phrenology was receiving some criticism.
Test Bank Principles of Neuropsychology 2nd Edition Zillmer
Somatosensory, Chemical and Motor Systems. Vision and Language. Memory, Attention and Executive Functioning. Developmental Disorders of Childhood. Learning and Neuropsychiatric Disorders of Childhood. Cerebrovascular Disorders. Tumors and Traumatic Brain Injury.
Principles Of Neuropsychology , 2nd Edition Test Bank | 9780495003762
Eric A. Zillmer received his Psy. He completed his internship training at Eastern Virginia Medical School, and also completed a two-year postdoctoral fellowship in neuropsychology at the University of Virginia Health Sciences Center. Currently, Dr. Zillmer is the Pacifico Professor of Neuropsychology at Drexel University where he teaches courses in neuropsychology, abnormal psychology, psychological assessment and sports psychology.