Akinocage In view of these precautions, it is ironic that so few early manuscripts have survived. Recent scholarship has noted that, although surviving early examples are now uncommon, human figurative art was a continuous tradition in the Muslim world in secular contexts such as literature, science, and history ; as early as the 9th century, such art flourished during the Abbasid Caliphate c. He rapidly gained political importance, and in became the vizier of emperor and Muslim convert Ghazan. MSSfolio 49a. The second section of this part is on the other people of the world encountered by the Mongols, including Oghuz Turks Ger.
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The Suwar al-akalim, a geographical compendium. Unfortunately, it has not survived in any known manuscript. Illustrations[ edit ] Recent scholarship has noted that, although surviving early examples are now uncommon, human figurative art was a continuous tradition in the Muslim world in secular contexts such as literature, science, and history ; as early as the 9th century, such art flourished during the Abbasid Caliphate c.
One descriptor says it shows Muhammad with Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib and Ali before sending them to battle. Another says Muhammad is on the right, but Hamza and Ali on the left, or perhaps the center. Another description says it is Muhammad exhorting his family to fight, and that he may be one of the central figures, but it is not clear which one. It may also be possible that it was compiled by a group of international scholars under his leadership.
Furthermore, not all of the work is original: for instance, the section on the period following the death of Genghis Khan in particular is directly borrowed from Juvayni. Other questions concern the objectivity of the author and his point of view: it is after all an official history, concerning events with which Rashid al-Din in his political capacity was often involved at first hand for the history of the Ilkhanate in particular. Nonetheless, the work "is characterized by a matter-of-fact tone and a refreshing absence of sycophantic flattery.
Note the elements protruding beyond the frame. The workshop was ordered to produce one manuscript each in Arabic and Persian every year, which were to be distributed to different cities. Other later copies were made from the first set, with some illustrations and history added to match current events. Only portions of it have survived,  divided into two parts between the University of Edinburgh folios and the Khalili Collection 59 folios , although some researchers argue for these being from two different copies.
Both sections come from the second volume, with the pages interwoven. The Edinburgh part covers some of the earlier history up through a section about the Prophet Muhammad, and then this story is continued in the Khalili portion, with further narratives weaving back and forth between the two collections, ending with the final section also being in the Edinburgh collection.
Edinburgh folios[ edit ] The Edinburgh part has a page size of There are some omissions: folios 1, 2, 70 to , and the end; and it is dated to , in a later inscription, which is nonetheless accepted.
The text comprises four parts: the history of Persia and pre-Islamic Arabia, the story of the Prophet and Caliphs, the history of the Ghaznavids , Seljuks and Atabeys , and the history of the sultans of Khwarezm. Seventy rectangular miniatures adorn the manuscript, which reflect the cosmopolitan nature of Tabriz at the time of its production. In this capital, a crossroads of trade routes and influences, and a place of great religious tolerance, Christian, Chinese, Buddhist and other models of painting all arrived to feed the inspiration of the artists.
The miniatures have an unusual horizontal format and only take up about a third of the written area; this may reflect the influence of Chinese scrolls.
Some parts of the surviving text are heavily illustrated and other parts not at all, apparently reflecting the importance accorded to them.
The miniatures are ink drawings with watercolour washes added, a technique also used in China; although they are generally in good condition, there was considerable use of metallic silver for highlights, which has now oxidized to black. Borrowings from Christian art can also be seen; for example the Birth of Muhammad adapts the standard Byzantine composition for the Nativity of Jesus , but instead of the Biblical Magi approaching at the left there is a file of three women.
Like other early Ilkhanid miniatures, these differ from the relatively few surviving earlier Islamic book illustrations in having coherent landscape backgrounds in the many scenes set outside, rather than isolated elements of plants or rocks.
Architectural settings are sometimes given a sense of depth by different layers being shown and the use of a three-quarters view. The work is characterized by open drawing, minimal modelling, linear drapery, extensive details, stripped and balanced compositions, delicate and pale colours, and a rare use of silver.
He painted mostly the early miniatures, and may have been assisted by the Master of Tahmura. The Painter of Lohrasp : characterized by a variety of subjects, including many throne scenes, a variable and eclectic style, quite severe and angular drapery, a variety of movements, stripped and empty backgrounds. His absence of interest in landscape painting shows a lack of Chinese influences, which is compensated for by inspiration from Arab, Syrian and Mesopotamian painting.
His work is of variable quality, and uses silver systematically. His assistant: the Master of Scenes from the Life of the Prophet. The Master of the Battle Scenes: a somewhat careless painter, as becomes evident when the number of arms does not match the number of characters, or a leg is missing among the horses.
He is notable for a complete lack of focus and horror, and for strong symmetry, his compositions usually comprising two parties face to face composed of a leader and two or three followers. Decoration is limited to grass, indicated in small vegetative clumps, except during sieges and attacks on the city. The Master of Alp Arslan appears briefly, at the end of the manuscript. His style is crude and unbalanced, his characters often badly proportioned.
Just as distinguishable are different racial and ethnic types, made manifest not just in the physical attributes of the characters, but also their clothes and their hats. One can thus distinguish a remarkably well observed group of Abyssinians , Western-style figures based on Syrian Christian manuscripts, Chinese, Mongols, Arabs, and so on. The Edinburgh folios were displayed at an exhibition at the University of Edinburgh Main Library in summer  Khalili folios[ edit ] Buddha offers fruit to the devil, Khalili Collection The portion in the Khalili Collection , where it is referred to as MSS, contains 59 folios, 35 of them illustrated.
Until sold in it was owned by the Royal Asiatic Society in London. It is a different section of the History than that of the Edinburgh version, possibly from a different copy. Each page measures The latter may have been lost accidentally, but the former block may have been jettisoned deliberately because it had no illustrations. The folios about the life of the Prophet were further jumbled, and four were lost. The final three folios covering the end of the section on the Jews were also lost, perhaps accidentally, but judging from the comparable section in MS.
H , they had no illustrations and may also have been discarded. It includes twenty illustrations, plus fifteen pages with portraits of the emperors of China. Some differences in style can be observed, but these can be attributed to the difference in date. A new painter appears for the portraits of Chinese leaders, which uses special techniques that seem to mimic those of Yuan mural painters according to S. Blair : an attention to line and wash, and the use of black and bright red.
This artist seems to be very familiar with China. It contains 68 paintings in the Ilkhanid style. MS H , made in , which includes illustrations, including 21 pages of portraits of Chinese emperors.
It was copied for Rashid al-Din, and like H was later owned by Shahrukh. Jonah and the Whale. Compendium of Chronicles ca. Attributed to Iran. The earliest dated manuscript made for Shahrukh includes the original text and additions by Hafiz-i Abru, along with other histories, and is dated Topkapi Palace Library, MS B Most of the miniatures for these volumes copy the horizontal format and other features of the Ilkhanid manuscripts, while retaining other features of Timurid style in costume, colouring and composition, using what is sometimes known as the "Historical style".
The Suwar al-akalim, a geographical compendium. Unfortunately, it has not survived in any known manuscript. Illustrations[ edit ] Recent scholarship has noted that, although surviving early examples are now uncommon, human figurative art was a continuous tradition in the Muslim world in secular contexts such as literature, science, and history ; as early as the 9th century, such art flourished during the Abbasid Caliphate c. One descriptor says it shows Muhammad with Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib and Ali before sending them to battle.
JAMI AL TAWARIKH PDF
Goltishicage It was probably divided into two parts in the mids, though both sections remained in India until the 19th century, when they were acquired by the British. Some differences in style can be observed, but these can be attributed to the difference in date. Tawairkh attests to the remarkable global imperial vision of the Mongol rulers. Zeki Velidi Toganpp. This volume, which has not yet been edited in its entirety for mss. He converted to Islam around the age of thirty. Although most scholarly attention has focused on volume one, which is a fundamental source for the history of the rise and establishment of the Mongol Empire, from a historiographical point of view, the second volume is far more significant as the first attempt to write a jai history: The work describes cultures and major events in world history from China to Europe; in addition, it covers Mongol history, as a way of establishing their cultural legacy.