The life cycle is typical for Agromyzidae, though there is relatively little information published on the biology of L. A useful summary is provided by Weintraub and Horowitz Peak emergence of adults occurs before midday McGregor, Males usually emerge before females. Mating takes place from 24 h after emergence and a single mating is sufficient to fertilize all eggs laid.
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The life cycle is typical for Agromyzidae, though there is relatively little information published on the biology of L. A useful summary is provided by Weintraub and Horowitz Peak emergence of adults occurs before midday McGregor, Males usually emerge before females.
Mating takes place from 24 h after emergence and a single mating is sufficient to fertilize all eggs laid. Female flies puncture the leaves of the host plants causing wounds which serve as sites for feeding or oviposition Mujica and Cisneros, Feeding punctures cause the destruction of a larger number of cells and are more clearly visible to the naked eye.
Males are unable to puncture leaves, but have been observed feeding at punctures produced by females. Both males and females are able to survive on dilute honey in the laboratory and take nectar from flowers. Eggs are inserted just below the leaf surface. The number of eggs laid varies according to temperature and host plant. Eggs hatch in days according to the temperature. Reductions in population levels of L.
There are three larval stages that feed within the leaves. The larvae predominantly feed on the plant in which the eggs are laid. Although the larvae of some species can exit one leaf and enter another, this has not been reported for L. The larva leaves the plant to pupate Parrella and Bethke, Pupae may be found in crop debris or in the soil. Pupation takes place within the sclerotized skin of the third larva and gives rise to adult flies.
Parthenogenic females have not been reported. Pupariation is adversely affected by high humidity and drought.
At low temperatures emergence is delayed. In southern USA, the life cycle is probably continuous throughout the year, although there is a noticeable first generation which reaches a peak in April Spencer, In Israel, adults can be found from the autumn to late spring but not in summer Weintraub and Horowitz, Adults are primarily active in early morning, shortly after sunrise, and again just before sunset Weintraub and Horowitz, In California, USA, it completes its life cycle in days during the summer and in days during the winter Lange et al.
Adults generally live for days, and females generally live longer than males. In northern Europe, L. In Peru, the life cycle is as follows: egg stage days ; first-instar larva days ; second-instar larva, days; third instar days; pupal stage 18 days. Females had an average longevity of days; male longevity was days.
The mean number of eggs laid per female in winter was and in spring was Mujica and Cisneros, Studies on L. The theoretical lower threshold temperatures for development for each larval instar and pupae were 5.
The calculated degree-days for each stage were They estimated the minimum developmental temperatures for egg, larva and pupa at 8.
The upper thresholds for egg, larva and pupa were calculated to be This behaviour gives L. Supercooling capacity ranged down to Even in severe cold, some leafminers were able to survive. Interestingly, Martin et al. Natural enemies.
Mujica, P. Host preferences vary according to location, production practices, and host availability. The major ornamental plants and crops affected are the following: Apiaceae: celery Apium graveolens L. Detection and identification Adults and larvae of L. The larva is primarily a leafminer; however, on peas the larvae also feed on the outer surface of young pods Photo 1A, B. Feeding punctures and leaf mines are usually the first and most obvious signs of the presence of leafminer flies.
EPPO Global Database
In , it was first found in Europe, being detected in a glasshouse in the Netherlands. From there it has spread within Europe, especially in the Mediterranean area and Eastern Europe, this latter region being surprising because the winters would be expected to be too cold. A pea leafminer already present in North America is a different species, Liriomyza langei. This insect is not found out-of-doors in Britain, but has been discovered in greenhouses in England and Wales, on each occasion being subsequently eradicated. The larvae passes through three instar stages before pupating. The eggs take two to five days to hatch and the larvae take up to seven days to feed.
Mosca minadora o Liriomyza huidobrensis: Todo lo que debes saber