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The layout can affect productivity and costs generated by the system. Layout alternatives are limited by the amount and type of space required for the various areas the amount and type of space available the operations strategy. An example of a hybrid layout is where departments are arranged according to the types of processes but the products flow through on a product layout.

Dashed lines represent traffic between nonadjacent departments. The projected volumes are written above the appropriate lines. This proceeds until no further improvement can be found 2 7 Block Diagram Analysis This approach follows the operations sequence analysis and is an effort to make the solution more realistic Each department is represented by a square the relative size of the department Shapes of the squares are altered to fit into the boundaries of the building while retaining the same areas and relative position found in the operations sequence analysis 2 8 Load-Distance Analysis A way of quantitatively comparing alternative process layouts Inputs Alternative block layouts which will provide the distance between a department and each of the other departments For each product, the path it will follow routing and its volume over some time period.

The cycle time is the reciprocal of the production rate and visa versa All of the tasks required to make the product It is assumed that these tasks can not be divided further. If not provided, find the cycle time for the line. Remember the cycle time is the reciprocal of the production rate.

Make sure the cycle time is expressed in the same time units as the estimated task times. Select the line-balancing heuristic that may be used to help with the assignments. Two heuristics are described at the end of this procedure. Open a new work station with the full cycle time remaining. Determine which tasks are feasible, i. For a task to be feasible, two conditions must be met: All tasks that precede that task must have already been assigned The estimated task time must be less than or equal to the remaining cycle time for that work station.

If there are no feasible tasks, assignments to that work station are complete. Go back to step 3 or stop, if all tasks have been assigned. If there is only one feasible task, assign it to the work station. If there is more than one feasible task, use the heuristic step 2 to determine which task to assign. Reduce the work stations remaining cycle time by the selected tasks time and return to step 4. Longest-Task-Time Heuristic - adds tasks to a workstation one at a time in the order of task precedence, choosing - when a choice must be made the task with the longest time.

Utilization is one way of objectively determining how near perfectly balanced an assignment scheme is. Utilization is the percentage of time that a production line is working.

Utilization is calculated as: Minimum number of workstati ons x Actual number of workstati ons or Sum of all task time s x Cycle Time x Actual number of work stations 4 4 Designing and Analyzing a Cellular Layout Fundamental questions: Which parts are going to be produced in a cell? Which processes are going to be assigned to a cell? Parts must be capable of being grouped into parts families. Form the Parts-Machines Matrix. Rearrange the Rows.

Place the machines that produce the same parts in adjacent rows. Rearrange the Columns. Place the parts requiring the same machines in adjacent columns. Using the rearranged parts-machines matrix to identify cells, the machines for that cell and the parts that will be produced in that cell. There are three dimensions to the type of service: Standard or custom design Amount of customer contact Mix of physical goods and intangible services There are three types of service operations: Quasi manufacturing Customer-as-participant Customer-as-product 4 9 Characteristics of Service Facility Layouts The encounter between the customer and the service must be provided for.

The degree to which customer-related features must be provided varies with the amount of involvement and customer contact.

Provide for customer waiting lines.


Production Operations Management: Norman Gaither Greg Frazier



ISBN 13: 9780538891080


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